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Abbreviation for numerical aperture.


Network Access Configuration Function – Functional Entity


Network Access Control Function


1. Negative-Acknowledge Character, 2. Negative Acknowledgement.

nailed-up circuit

Deprecated term. See dedicated circuit, permanent virtual circuit.


Acronym for negative-acknowledge character.

NAK attack

In communications security systems, a security penetration technique that makes use of the negative-acknowledge transmission-control character and capitalizes on a potential weakness in a system that handles asynchronous transmission interruption in such a manner that the system is in an unprotected state against unauthorized access during certain periods. [From Weik ’89]

naming authority

With respect to Internet addressing, an entity responsible for the allocation of names. Note: Such naming is typically hierarchical, so that the authority to allocate domain names is restricted to a particular level within a domain, such as “.com”, “.net”, or “.gov”.


Consists of the United States, Canada and the Caribbean countries: Anguilla, Antigua, Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Canada, Cayman Islands, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. Kitts & Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent & Grenadines, Turks & Caicos Islands, Trinidad & Tobago, and U.S. Caribbean territories (including American Samoa, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands).

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